In the second video of the set, the same conditions apply with the additional application of an electronic dog training collar.

The electronic dog training collar is used as a conditioned reinforcer that enables the dog to understand he is on the ‘right path’ to the reward.

As in the first video, the leash act as a positive punisher (the dog cannot escape or avoid it) and negative reinforcement (the dog stops moving as he reaches the end of the leash, or leash pressure disappears), either simultaneously or transitioning seamlessly one from the other.

The electronic collars’ stimulation acts as a cue that attention to handler equals a reward, or as a ‘conditioned reinforcer’ in this application. At these levels (level ‘8’ out of 127 possible settings) the collar is benign, causing neither pain nor pleasure.

It is in the pairing of a reward with the absence of pressure during the dogs’ appropriate response that determines the assigned value.